How to have a perfect picnic – 3 meals to bring and wine that goes with anything

Ah, picnics. There’s nothing like dining al fresco to lift one’s spirits.

The most important ingredient for a perfect picnic is the company that you bring with you. So invite some of the people you love to enjoy a bit of fresh air with you first. The second most essential component of your picnic is its location. You want two things in a picnic location, soft ground, and shade. A good view is always a nice touch.

For an ideal picnic, you want to pack foods that get better the longer they sit. Ingredients that are prone to becoming mushy are not the move.

Rainbow Salad in a Jar – This is the way to go if you want to bring a salad. The visual presentation will make you the envy of fellow picnickers and your ingredients will stay fresh.

Chickpea Avocado Sandwich – Packing a sandwich can work so long as you keep the moist fillings from touching the bread with a layer of romaine.

Peach and Strawberry Bruschetta – This is a great option if you pack the toppings separately and slice your bread ahead of time to let it develop a crust.

Rosé is the quintessential french picnic wine (we love this one from Riojana) but it can also be nice to switch things up with some white wine. If you aren’t going too far from home you can probably get away with chilling your wine ahead of time and not fussing with ice.

And remember, whenever you enjoy an outdoor space it is important to make sure that you don’t leave anything behind. Please pick up any wrappers or boxes you might have brought with you. Often it is ultimately up to the community to keep our public spaces clean.

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5 Practical Ways That You Can Help Save The Bees

We all know that it is crucial we take steps to save the bees. After all, every one out of three bites of food we eat is dependent on bees for pollination. Our bee populations face many threats from things such as Colony Collapse Disorder, the overuse of pesticides, and habitat loss. We hear about how desperately we need to save the bees from our friends, the news, and countless TED talks. But it can be hard to know what one should actually do if they want to play a part in preserving our pollinators and their natural environments. So we have rounded up 5 different small things you can do that will have a big impact if enough people take the initiative. Read on to start saving the bees today!

Cultivate Native Plants

In order for bees to get pollinating, they need plenty of plants that they can choose from. But you want to make sure that you are cultivating plants that are native to the area in which you live if you want to help out your bees. This is because those bees have evolved to interact with those native plants specifically, non-native plants might not provide pollinators with the pollen or nectar that they need.

Here are some native California plants that you could put in your yard to help out your local pollinators:

  • California Poppies, this annual plant produces iconic orange flowers that are sure to lure bees in. It is a perennial that grows well in both sun and partial shade, it is also drought resistant.
  • Germander Sage, this bush is covered with brilliant blue blooms in early summer and fall. It needs full sun in order to thrive but it is deer resistant and attracts both bees and hummingbirds.
  • Cascade Creek Goldenrod, throughout spring and fall this plant displays bright yellow flowers that attract bees and butterflies. It needs full sun to partial shade and is drought resistant.
  • Catmint, this spreading perennial is hardy and herbaceous. It blooms in the spring and early summer and is beloved by many varieties of bees.

Use Safe Forms of pest control

There are many factors contributing to the decline of bee populations but one of the most significant is the use of pesticides in domestic and commercial agriculture. If you have a garden going then you want to find natural ways to keep out pests, or else we risk losing the ability to keep such gardens in the future. After all, many of the fruits and vegetables that we enjoy are pollinated by bees.

When looking for a pollinator-friendly form of pest-control it’s not enough for it to be labeled organic, some can still be toxic to pollinators even though they are plant-based. Instead, keep your eyes peeled for non-toxic ingredients such as Kaolin clay, garlic, and corn gluten. There are many other forms of natural pest control from bacterias and oils.

Create An Oasis For Bees In Your Yard/Patio

No matter the size of your yard or patio there are ways that you can create a safe haven for bees, even if you only have a front porch step to work with. Here are some things that you can do to keep your local bees happy:

  • Leave a dish of water outside for bees to rehydrate themselves. Make sure that you provide “landing zones” for them in the form of stones, twigs, or corks, as bees are clumsy and can easily drown. Also, don’t add sugar to the water. This is a myth and does not benefit them.
  • Place a bee hotel outside your home. We carry beneficial bug houses such as this at the Co-op! They allow bees to find a resting place on their long journeys from flower to flower.

Even if you don’t have room for a full garden having a single native plant on your patio is better than nothing!

Support Local Farmers and beekeepers

We can’t stress this point enough as the use of pesticides is one of the greatest threats to bee populations. Choosing to support farms that don’t spray pesticides will help the bees even more than if you personally stop spraying pesticides. Check out our local page to see some of the great local farms with outstanding practices that we carry at the co-op. You can also find many of these farms at the farmer’s market if you want to support them directly. 

Supporting local beekeepers is an even more direct way to help the cultivation of local bee populations. Purchasing bee products such as beeswax, honey, and honeycomb not only garner a sense of connection to the bees, but they help to support the people who’ve made supporting bees a life priority. A great local producer is Pure Honey from Winters, California.

Use YOUR VOICE, SPEAK FOR THE BEES

One of the most powerful ways that we can help the bees is through speaking out. By sharing what you’ve learned with others you may be able to inspire change in those close to you, and if we all do this it can lead to big results. You can also choose to support local organizations that are doing important work to help save the bees, such as:

  • Circle of Bees, which is built around sub/urban pollinators, especially honey-bees.
  • The Davis Bee Collective is a group of small-scale beekeepers dedicated to the cooperative practice and promotion of ecological apiculture.
  • The Haagen-Dazs Honey Bee Haven at UC Davis is a unique outdoor museum that provides resources for local bee pollinators and educates visitors to create pollinator habitat gardens. It also provides a site for the observation and study of bees and the plants that support them.

Written by: Rachel Heleva, Marketing Specialist


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A Conversation On Biodynamic Wine With Martin Pohl From Beaver Creek Vineyards

We recently had the chance to speak with Martin Pohl from Beaver Creek Vineyards about why biodynamic wine is more than just the latest trend in the wine industry. Beaver Creek Vineyards is located in Lake County, California, and produces biodynamic wines. Martin Pohl is the owner and winemaker of Beaver Creek, and his overriding philosophy is to work with nature, not against it.

About 50 sheep roam amongst the vineyard’s rows, a flock which Pohl herds himself. He views himself as a steward of the land on which his vineyard rests. He has faced various challenges in protecting it, “There have been many hits, Lake County suffers from droughts, there was the fire in 2015.”

Despite these setbacks, he still sees his plot of land as nearly perfect. “It’s a perfect place because it’s dry, so there’s barely any pest problems.” Other regions, such as those on the coast, face greater pest problems because of the humidity. “They almost have to use pesticides,” Pohl said. “Here it’s so ideal, I don’t have to spray for mildew, we don’t use any chemicals, it’s completely clean.”

His philosophy of non-interference extends from the vineyard to the wine barrels as well. “None of our wines have any sulfites added,” Pohl said. This is important to Pohl because he views natural wines as a living system. “Think of it kind of like the human immune system,” Pohl said. “When you add sulfites you compromise that system. They might prolong the shelf life of wine but they shorten its lifespan”

He has hopes for expansion sometime in the near future. He split with his partners in 2012 and will soon be the sole owner of the vineyard.

How did you become so interested in organics and biodynamics?

“It starts with a lifestyle, right? For the last 10 or 15 years, I always feel like I’ve been ahead of the curve. I started my organic lifestyle around 20 years ago. And as a result, I wanted to drink clean wine. And why would you put chemicals and additives in wine if you don’t have to? So I figured out how to make it without it. “

“The whites and roses are a little more complicated to make a natural way, they’re a little fragile. But the reds are easy because they have the skins on.”

“The yeast shapes the wine similar to the way that the weather patterns do throughout the year

“The byproduct of the natural yeast fermentation is sulfur!” The excitement in Pohl’s voice was tangible over this fact. “You can actually smell sulfur during the fermentation.”

I’m curious, were you a winemaker first or someone who was concerned about the environment?

Beaver Creek Vineyards during the 2015 Valley Fire

“Well there’s all things together, you want to do good things, you want to drink healthy wines, you want to help the planet.”

“I was an immigrant here, I was in San Francisco for 5 years working as a waiter. But that actually helped me learn about wine. Two friends and I then had the idea to start a winery.” “We had no prior experience in winemaking, so we learned from scratch.”

“What inspired me was actually my mother, she sent me this book about biodynamic wines which made it clear to me from the beginning that we should make healthy wines in order to help the planet and ourselves.”

What are some of the things that you do to protect your land?

“We don’t till our soil anymore. We have one field that we haven’t tilled since 2012, and the other one we stopped tilling three years ago.”

“We don’t own the land so we’re kind of limited in what we can do. We develop our own compost, and this is the only substance that we use for fertilization.” This is standard for biodynamic wines.

“We irrigate some because it is so hot here in Lake County,” Pohl said. “We used to be a dry farm actually until 2014, and then it was a disaster between gophers, the fire, and the drought.” If you don’t already know, gophers happen to be the bane of a winemaker’s existence. They feast on the roots of vines and sometimes can take plants underground.

“You would probably be surprised with organic grapes how many different additives you are allowed to add.” But with Biodynamic wine grapes, the regulations are quite strict, only natural methods may be used.

Written by Rachel Heleva, Marketing Specialist

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A Conversation With Emma Torbert From Cloverleaf Farm

We were fortunate to have the chance to speak with Emma Torbert from Cloverleaf Farm to hear about the unique structure they have and the sustainable practices that they use. Emma got her masters in Horticulture from UCD and worked for the Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis for seven years. Cloverleaf is an 8-acre organic orchard and farm outside of Davis, California on the Collins Farm that specializes in peaches, nectarines, apricots, figs, berries, and vegetables. The Cloverleaf follows regenerative principles including no-till, rotational grazing, and cover-cropping. The farm is co-owned by Emma Torbert, Katie Fyhrie, Kaitlin Oki, Yurytzy Sanchez, Neil Singh, Tess Kremer, and Kyle Chambers; who all manage the farm together in a cooperative and consensus-based fashion. You can find The Cloverleaf Farm’s produce at the Sacramento Farmers Market on Sundays and at various grocery stores in Davis, Sacramento, and the Bay Area. 

Cloverleaf seems to break the mold of what a traditional farm functions like. Traditionally farms are passed down generationally within families, but all of your farmers come from diverse backgrounds, how did that model get started at Cloverleaf?

“We started out a group of four women and then the farm passed through a number of different partners. As different people were leaving we were realizing that for the sake of future transitions and the longevity of the farm operation a worker-owned cooperative farm would be best, although we are currently still structured as a partnership. There are currently seven partners right now.”

“We’ve been working with the California Center for Co-op Development for the last four years trying to figure out a way that everybody can own equal equity in the farm. 2014 was the first time that we started profit sharing and equity sharing. The equity sharing is not yet equal but that is what we are working with the CCCD on.”

“One of our core principles in our vision statement is working as a team. An important thing in thinking about farm management for us is recognizing everybody’s different skills and working together without an established hierarchical structure. We rotate who gets to be the crew leader every couple of weeks, so they are essentially the boss for those two weeks, which means everyone gets a chance to step into a leadership role.”

How do you limit your greenhouse emissions?

“In terms of limiting our carbon footprint, we do a number of things. In terms of the transportation of our food, we try to deliver as locally as possible. We purposefully choose markets that are closer and do not take our products further than the bay area. We are always making the decision to try to sell closer to home.”

“As for what happens in the field, all of our vegetables get grown no-till. Our orchards and all of our annual crops are no-till, which means that we don’t use a tractor very often at all. In doing that we use less fossil fuel. We’ve also put solar panels around the farm, and can’t wait until we can add more.” 

“Something else that really contributes to greenhouse gas emissions is water use. We use moisture sensors so that we use as little water as possible. We tread that fine line of watering as little as possible without stunting the growth of the trees in our orchards.”

What are your pest management practices?

“We are an organic farm so we don’t spray any pesticides while the fruit is on the trees. We do use pheromone sprays, which disrupt the mating cycles of a lot of stone fruit pests. We put out raptor perches and owl boxes. The main pests that we have trouble with are ground squirrels and gophers.”

How do you try to limit your food waste?

We’ve been trying lots of different things for many years and I feel like this year it’s all coming together, we have very little food waste coming from our farm right now. Our compost pile is pretty tiny right now considering the size of our farm.

“We have an Ugly Fruit club, which allows people to buy our third-grade fruit at a discounted price. We also create a lot of value-added products like jams and dried fruit, which allows us to still sell our less aesthetic fruit instead of wasting it.”

“Something else that we do is donate to the food bank, especially this year when we’re worried about our community being food insecure.”

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What Is Biodynamic Wine?

There are many buzzwords that seem to surround our food; organic, sustainable, healthy, natural, the list goes on and on. Whether you have heard of the term biodynamic before or this is your first time encountering, you may feel the urge to view it as just another trendy term used to describe food. But the term biodynamic refers to a method of cultivation that aims to promote harmony between the natural world and those that live in it.

Biodynamics overview

Goats grazing at Frey Vineyards

Food plays an important role not only in our daily lives but in our culture and economy as well. But oftentimes getting dinner on the table takes precedent over wondering how it was grown and where it came from. This is unfortunate because pesticides, hormones, and over-processed foods are just some of the ills contributing to our and our planet’s health issues.

Biodynamic agriculture is a response to this issue. This style of cultivation has roots in the philosophy of Rudolf Steiner, which asserts that a farm or vineyard is a living system in its own right. He emphasized the relationships between plants, soil, and animals as the lifeblood of a farm. The aim of biodynamic farming is to create a system that is self-sustaining, using compost instead of chemical fertilizers.

As a practice, this style of farming goes a step further than organic cultivation, not only avoiding pesticides but following the natural rhythms of the environment. The guidelines that Biodynamic farms must follow are quite strict; they must use self-contained composting materials, only compost can be used as a fertilizing material, and the use of plastic materials in the farm’s infrastructure is not permitted. Producers who wish to label their products as biodynamic must be properly credentialed by an organization called Demeter. In order to become certified cultivators must use eight mineral and plant-based preparations to activate soil life and plant growth on the land.

The Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association defines biodynamic agriculture as “a spiritual-ethical-ecological approach to agriculture, gardens, food production and nutrition.” Biodynamic farming uses sustainable practices to ensure that the land is left in as good or better shape as it was found for future generations.

Biodynamic viticulture

Wild Mustard blowing in the wind in the Frey organic Cabernet vineyard, Spring 2019.

So biodynamic viticulture refers to using these sorts of natural and holistic practices to make wine. Biodynamic vineyards thus become a haven for local flora and fauna, barring a few select pests(e.g. gophers and insects) who would eat every grape before it ever graced a barrel if they had their way.

Gerard Bertrand, a world-renowned producer of biodynamic wines, characterizes biodynamic wine as possessing “more freshness, more minerality, and more complexity.” He asserts that the soil is what determines a wine’s terroir, and to use chemicals in the soil strips it of its unique characteristics. Because of the level of care biodynamic farmers use in their vineyards biodynamic wine is said to have a higher-quality taste than other types of wine.

We carry a variety of biodynamic wines here at the Co-op from producers such as Beaver Creek, Frey Vineyards, and Lunaria Orsogna.

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Looking Back: A Davis Food Co-op History (1972-1984)

The following is a history of the Davis Food Co-op written by Chris Laning. We are so thankful for the work that Chris has done to preserve the Co-op’s history and are inspired to continue cultivating our community here in Davis.

This history was re-edited from a series of articles that once appeared in the Davis Co-op News in 1992 and 1993. Many of the quotes are taken from memory and reflect one person’s experience of these events as they occurred.

Part 1: 1972-1978

I was pedaling routinely down L Street on my bicycle one day in the fall of 1976 when I saw an open garage door in the block north of the Friends Meetinghouse. Inside, several people were busy with saws, hammers, and wood, building shelving. The sign said “Davis Food Co-op” so I stopped. “Hey, glad to see you’re opening a storefront,” I said. “Yes, want to join?” they said. “That’s all I was waiting for.”

The Co-op had been around for about four years in 1976, but I first became involved with the store then, at 415 L Street. I’ve been a member ever since. I’ve been on the staff in one job or another since 1979. In this “Looking Back” feature, I’ll be giving you more of a reminiscence than a real history. I’ve checked facts where I can, but please bear in mind this is one very personal view. Anyone who was around in those times is welcome to supply corrections.

Back in time: 1972

Like most food co-ops, this one started as a buying club. It began in the spring of 1972 when several student co-op houses – including the Agrarian Effort on campus – informally started ordering cheese, produce and bulk dry goods together. By combining their food orders they could get one big enough to buy direct from wholesalers.

The group, mostly students, faltered over the summer, but Ann Evans, a member of one of the original co-op houses, called about 40 people and got enough orders to keep it going. Orders grew rapidly and soon became too big for the few people who were doing the ordering. Ann remembers one herb order that was “just a disaster.” So several people got together to try to work out some kind of structure.

“We called everyone we knew to come to a meeting,” recalls Ann. “There were four of us: Neil Adams, who had experience with a buying club in Boston; Bob and Sue Holland, who had been members of one at Antioch; and I. Neil and I stayed up writing all one Saturday night. The next day there were about 15 people at the meeting and they accepted the structure we came up with. It actually proved to be a workable structure for three or four years. That was also when we chose a name-the ‘People’s Food Conspiracy.’”

The buying club was organized into “blocks” – eventually 14 of them. Each block had 10 to 12 households. Work was rotated, with one household each week taking charge of compiling the orders for house-holds in their block, then receiving and dividing up the food. (That was a lot of work for a household of one person, which is why I hadn’t joined.) One block each week was also “master block,” compiling all the block orders into a master order. Volunteers made the trips to wholesalers in Sacramento to bring back the goods, which were divided up in someone’s garage. Cheese came from Tony’s in West Sacramento, produce from local growers and Abdallah Produce Company, and dry goods from Westbrae Natural Foods. This was before the days of the Davis Farmer’s Market, so the buying club was one of the few ways you could get organic produce, or produce from local growers.

The buying club operated out of various places including Diogenes House (then downtown), the Methodist Church on Anderson Road, and people’s front lawns. It continued to grow rapidly.

As is always the case, a few dedicated members put in more work than anyone else-but many people did contribute large amounts of time and effort, and in return received joy, backaches, community spirit, and food at 20% to 30% below retail.

Even in those days, there were disagreements. “Not so much about food,” recalls Ann: “We were pretty much all natural-food people. But one group of about twenty households did split off because they felt the co-op was getting too big. There was also a lot of controversy when we hired our first paid coordinator.” That was Dwight Patterson. Several others also took a turn as coordinator, including Alice Swan and Mary-Ellen Hennessey (Maynard). “The pay was pretty nominal,” comments Ann, “at first, just an extra discount on food.”

1976: The first store

Like many buying clubs, membership and interest peaked at about four years, then began to decline as fewer people were willing to put in a lot of time. A group of core members, including Henry Esbenshade (then a fruit grower in Winters, now in Australia), Kathy Cerna (Grant), Martin Barnes, Dave and Judy Scott, and Ann Evans, decided the co-op could have a storefront for about the same time and energy.

They got a lot of members together for a potluck at the 5th and J Street house and asked Morrie Lippmann and Jerry Kresy from Associated Cooperatives (which then had a wholesale business with a warehouse in Richmond-it’s now a food broker) to come and talk to them about how to open a store.

“We were really enthusiastic and had over $4000 in loans and pledges from members,” recalls Ann. “They told us there was no way we could open a store with only $4000. But the energy was so high at that meeting that we decided to go ahead anyway and formed committees. A lot of people put in incredible amounts of time-just gave their lives-to open that store.”

Henry Esbenshade was the one who found the place. 415 L Street had been a bulk dog-food store that was going out of business. Ann painted the sign and oversaw all the city processes, including getting the sign approved by the Design Review Commission, which she later served on. Many people pitched in to build shelves and counters. The folks at Associated Co-ops were really helpful.

“They couldn’t believe it when we came down for our first order of canned and packaged goods only two days before the store was due to open. But they helped us make sure everything got there on time.” There was a big party when the store opened on December 18, 1976.

The L Street Store

The whole store was only 600 square feet, about 1/20th of our current aisle area. Imagine a space about 2 of our aisles wide and 12 of an aisle long. Into that we put a cash register and scale, a standing cooler with doors, with cheese and dairy products on one side and produce on the other, a row of produce boxes down the middle and two very small side aisles of bulk dry goods and canned and packaged goods. There were also bulletin boards (of course!). Two people could pass each other in the aisles if neither one was pushing a shopping cart or had a backpack on. I used to tell people at orientations that “we cut the cheese in a closet.” Actually it wasn’t a closet but a very small passageway between the tiny office and the tiny bathroom in the back of the store. It had a wide doorway, and we put a narrow counter across the back wall.

Shipments from A.C. had to sit outside on the sidewalk until they got stocked on the shelves inside. That was all right because they had to be brought up here in two or three trips in the co-op’s trusty (?) white van, a gift from Peter Keat (who is now [former] president of Sacramento Natural Foods Co-op). We had a policy that we would not carry a packaged product if the product was also available in bulk. All products were priced at 15% over wholesale for members and 35% for non-members.

When I joined, there were no shares. You paid a non-refundable $10 for a “lifetime membership” for your household of 1 to 5 people. All households were required to work 2 hours per month, either in the store or on one of the Co-op’s committees. There was no paid staff. The store was run by “Day Co-ordinators,” volunteers who worked a half-day shift every week. There was no Board of Directors. Co-op policies were decided at “Policy Meetings” open to all members, held once a month. Weekly Store Operations Meetings were held for DCs and the Orderers’ Collective every Tuesday night at 7:30. The store was open 12 to 8 Mon- day through Friday and 10 to 6 on Saturday. It was closed Sundays; the Saturday night closers donated any produce that wouldn’t keep over the weekend to the Community Meal.

Probably the experience I had was typical. I went to an orientation meeting, after hours in the store one evening, where we all sat on the cold concrete floor and went around the circle introducing ourselves and saying why we were interested in the Co-op. About half the people said “because I can get my food cheaper” and the other half said, “to destroy the capitalist system.” For my first two years as a member, I did my 2 hours a month by providing an “herb of the month” display.

The time was right and the prices were right. The co-op membership grew rapidly. When the storefront opened, there were about 200 member households. Within two years it was 750. About 70% were students. Inventory nearly doubled, from around $4,000 to $7,000. Early “mainstay” members included-besides those already mentioned-Mary Tappel, Eric Hiaasen, Jackie Lundy, Peter Rosenthal, Linda Morgan (Morgan Richardson), Deidre Busacca, Miles Merwin and Libby Hise (Merwin), Steve Uhl, Rhonda Smith, and Bud Bliss. These are only a few names out of many. Interestingly, many of our “core members” wound up on the co-op board or on committees. In some other co-ops starting about the same time-most notably Arcata-”core members” tended to gravitate toward being on the paid staff instead.

The Co-op had a very close relationship with the Davis Farmer’s Market, which also began in 1976. A lot of the same members were involved in starting both, including Jeff and Annie Main. The Co-op helped attract farmers to the market by guaranteeing that the Co-op would buy anything that didn’t sell at the Saturday market.

1977: Remodeling and revision

The store space was remodeled in August and September 1977. Although the demand for both more packaged foods and more bulk foods was recognized, the net effect of the remodeling was to increase the shelf space occupied by packaged foods, but not the space for bulk foods. This produced arguments about whether the co-op was remaining true to its commitment to “emphasis on basic foods.” We have always carried both health foods and some standard grocery foods, and the disagreements about product line and emphasis have been perpetual. One member “was just about ready to lay down and die,” says Ann, before he would agree to the co-op’s carrying white sugar.

Member support for honoring boycotts was strong. The co-op honored all UFW boycotts, which then included Campbell’s products, and we also boycotted Nestlé, Del Monte, and Dole products, and all yellow-fin tuna. A collecting can for a “voluntary tax” on Third World-produced products such as bananas and coffee stood on the cash register. The proceeds were donated to the American Friends Service Committee.

Discussion about incorporation as a “cooperative corporation” (a special type of corporation, newly authorized under California law) had begun in 1976, about the same time as the discussion about opening a store, but it took a lot longer to accomplish. In fact, the process wasn’t completely finished till 1981. The advantages of incorporating include increased credibility, the possibility of reducing taxes through patronage refunds to members, and limited liability-the protection of members’ personal assets if the co-op were sued. Members voted at the March 1st, 1977 Policy Meeting to begin proceedings to incorporate the co-op as a cooperative corporation. Proposed bylaws were drafted during the year and went through many revisions-no one knows how many.

One problem that we wrestled with at the time is the fact that incorporation requires you to have a board of directors. Some members resisted that, because of their strong commitment to the system we were using-monthly Policy Meetings where all members present could vote. Ways of compromising with this requirement were discussed, but eventually, the bylaws did provide for a board, though it had very little power.

1978: The move to Fifth Street

A New Store Committee was formed late in 1977 and in the January, 1978 issue of OEKOS, the co-op newsletter, it advertised for suggestions. Things moved fast. The decision to lease space in the new building going up at 1403 Fifth Street-just a couple of blocks away-was made February 15th. It was a bit rushed because another tenant wanted the space. A crash campaign began to find member loans to finance the move and new inventory, along with trucks, lumber, refrigeration equipment, dollies, paint, ideas and help with construction and moving. The move was made April 1st, with a long line of shopping carts trundling up and down L Street carrying everything imaginable from the old store to the new. Many members turned out to help. (Carol Shearly, later to be General Manager, helped; I didn’t.)

We began with just one large room-Suite “A,” 2160 square feet at the end of the building furthest from Fifth Street. We built a walk-in cooler for produce, dairy, and cheese, with three glass doors on the front. Member artists did a series of four posters for the space above these doors, with the themes, “Working Together,” “Volunteer Work,” “Organic Produce” and “Direct Marketing” (for the latter two illustrations, see pages 15 and 14 of this issue). Behind the cooler was the storeroom area. Just prior to the move there was a 2/3 to 1/3 vote not to begin a proposed phase-out of certain canned and processed foods. But it was decided to double the bulk foods selection in the new store, while not increasing the space for packaged foods at all, as members felt packaged foods had received too much emphasis in the 1977 remodeling of the L Street store.

While considering other sites for a store, previous to finding the 1403 Fifth Street site, the Policy Committee had discussed very positively possible inventory expansions in the following areas: expanding books, going into some basic hardware and garden supplies, and possibly into some basic clothing such as jeans and shirts. One of the floor plans for the expansion at the 1403 Fifth Street site showed a hardware and garden supply section.

The first paid staff

With the move to the new store, the work requirement-which had been 2 hours a month per household regardless of size-was raised to 4 hours a month for households of 3 or more adults. (It’s still 4 hours for households of 3 or 4.) In May 1978, attendance at an orientation became a requirement for all new members.

Around this time the famous carrot-and-fist logo made its first appearance. Several logos had been used before this, including two pine trees in a circle, the “twin pines” being a well-known symbol for co-ops around the world. The carrot and fist, however, won a member contest and was adopted as our particular trademark (which it remained until our new “fields and sky” logo was adopted in 1988). [“Fields and sky wasn’t adopted until 1989, according to Doug Walter. It served until 2010, when it was replaced by the “Coop sign/Welcome to Davis” logo.] Many members have always loved the carrot and fist, and find it amusing and irreverent. “I always saw it as a clever and mildly jovial image,” says Evan Sugden. Other members have always been embarrassed by it.

Serious consideration was also given to hiring some paid staff. The Administrative Subcommittee proposed hiring a 3-person “managerial collective”-a bookkeeper, a “Day Coordinator Coordinator” (!), and an “Orderer Coordinator” to provide some continuity and fill in gaps when volunteer workers didn’t materialize. There was considerable debate, some members being concerned that paid people would become a “hierarchy” and discourage volunteer involvement, or acquire a disproportionate share of power. Proposals were made that paid jobs be rotated every few months so no one would have too much of a stake in the job. The need for skilled help with bookkeeping was most urgent, and Lois Richter was hired in August 1978 as the Co-op’s part-time bookkeeper for $3.75 an hour.

In the meantime, we were able to get two temporary staff members through the CETA program, a federal program designed to give job training to the unemployed. Mary Ellen Hennessey (Maynard) and Linda Morgan (Morgan Richardson), both long-time Day Coordinators, were hired and worked for the Co-op full time from early spring through August, when Proposition 13 cut off CETA funds.

Morgan, by the way, was responsible for the first “junk food” the Co-op carried, Mystic Mints cookies, a favorite of hers. We still carry them, and while they are sweetened with white sugar, in fairness it has to be said that they are made with real cocoa and peppermint oil rather than synthetic substitutes.

When Mellon and Morgan left, Day Coordinator Jim Havert proposed another solution. He had been volunteering 20 to 40 hours per week as a DC and DC Coordinator and submitted a proposal that he be hired as an all-purpose “Resource Coordinator” for $70 per week. He proposed to take on a long list of responsibilities, from receiving shipments, handling special orders, and setting up a filing system to recruiting and training DCs and setting up a publicity committee.

His proposal was approved late one evening at a Policy Meeting, without much advance publicity- which drew the predictable protest from a number of members. “This issue has been one of the most divisive issues within our co-op,” charged a letter to the Co-op newsletter. “The reasonable manner in which to make a decision of this sort is to present alternatives along with the arguments, or allow other interested parties to submit responses and/or proposals job description which Jim submitted is clearly that of a manager we are not opposed to paying people for specific skills, but hiring a manager has historically been the death knell for active member participation in contemporary, open-membership co-ops.” Nevertheless, Jim must have proved indispensable, as he continued in the job from early November 1978 through April of 1979.

It’s getting ahead of the story a bit, but in April 1979 something like the original “managerial collective” was finally put in place when Jim-who by that time was burned out and ready to leave-was replaced by two half- time “Resource Coordinators,” Lisa Vittori and myself.

A step toward incorporation

Incorporation took another step forward in 1978 and then tied itself up in a knot, where it remained for almost three more years. There is a record of the Policy Meeting’s original vote to incorporate in 1977. Several people remember clearly that in February 1978 the Policy Meeting re-affirmed this decision and authorized Incorporation Committee to pay the filing fees and file the incorporation papers. Others dispute the terms of that authorization, and the minutes of that meeting no longer exist.

As chair of the Incorporation Committee, Ann Evans recruited eight other members to serve as an incorporating Board of Directors, and on August 24, 1978, they filed incorporation papers for us with the State of California. Besides Ann, the other original Directors were Bud Bliss, Martin Barnes, Jackie Lundy, Mary Tappel, Jim Havert, Deidre Busacca, Robert Burney and Evan Sugden.

The filing created a “paper corporation,” the Davis Food Co-op, Inc., which had only its directors and owned nothing. The Co-op’s real membership, and the business with its assets and liabilities, still belonged to a separate organization, called “The Davis Food Co-op, An Association” to keep the two straight. An association is legally very much like a giant partnership, with all members jointly owning the business. An association has none of the liability protection or other special privileges of corporations.

What remained to be done was to “merge” the DFC corporation and the association. A proposal was made to do this at the September Policy Meeting. Unfortunately, the proposal mentioned “transferring the assets” of the corporation but didn’t mention the liabilities.

Maxine Heffner, a retired publicist and chair of the Co-op newsletter committee, immediately took alarm when she heard this a few days before the meeting. Taking the proposal literally the way it had been worded, she believed that the association would be giving away its assets, but would still be stuck with all the liabilities and open to lawsuits. She charged that this amounted to an attempted “take-over” by the corporate board. Maxine deposited the Co-op’s mailing list in her bank safe- deposit box and prepared a four-page special newsletter to inform members of the situation as she understood it. When board members prevented the newsletter from being printed, she called the media, and an article appeared in the next day’s Davis Enterprise. This probably increased attendance at the Policy Meeting considerably!

The meeting was later described as a “4-hour marathon” of “heated discussion.” Many members attending were confused about incorporation; others understood the basic issue but disagreed with the decision to incorporate, or were angry at the way they felt it had been handled. The benefits and drawbacks of incorporation were again debated, as well as the relative powers of the Board of Directors and the Policy Meeting if the merger went through. In the end, the meeting agreed that three directors from the “DFC, Inc.” would negotiate with three members appointed by the Policy Meeting for “DFC, Association” to come up with a set of bylaws under which the Association would be willing to transfer everything to the corporation. These would be voted on by the members of the Association.

Maxine resigned or was fired as newsletter editor and wrote an 8-page, single-spaced typed letter defending her actions. The Co-op recovered its mailing list and began working more closely with lawyers, but the merger of the corporation and the association didn’t take place until February 1981. One reason was that every time a new lawyer offered to help, it took twenty minutes to explain to the slightly incredulous lawyer how things had gotten into such a tangle. There were also several issues in the bylaws that took time to resolve.

Tony Mendoza took over the Co-op newsletter and within a few weeks put out the first issue since April-Maxine, rather than publishing each month, had embarked on an ambitious expansion of the newsletter with a new name, “Omega,” but had not completed this when the trouble began.

This was not the first co-op controversy, of course. Nor was it the last. Things did go a little more smoothly after this embarrassment, however, though a number of members mistrusted each other for a long time afterward.

An optimistic time

Two fairly successful projects that were gathering momentum around this time were a regional association of co-ops and farmers called REACH, and a statewide California Cooperative Federation.

REACH stands for “Research, Education and Action for Cooperatives and Health.” The original purposes of the regional and statewide organizations included not only sharing between consumer co-ops, but combining co-ops’ buying power, providing group health insurance, and coordinating growers who needed markets with co-ops that needed produce. The name of REACH’s newsletter, “On the Market” (abbreviated OM), stemmed from its original hope of serving as a regional market.

The organization of CCF and REACH had begun in 1976 with members of several consumer co-ops. As might be expected, many of the same people were involved in both, as well as in the founding of local co-ops and Farmers’ Markets. Ann Evans was on the first Board of Directors of REACH when it filed for incorporation as a non-profit corporation in August 1978.

Member co-ops had high hopes for organizing a regional food warehouse. Natural and bulk foods distributors were fewer and farther between than they are now, and many in Northern California did not deliver outside the Bay Area. The Sacramento Valley was and is an agricultural area, and what could be more logical than for co-ops to buy from local growers? Member co-ops included the still existing Sacramento Natural Foods Co-op, Grass Valley Briarpatch Co-op, Chico Homes (a housing co-op), and Chico Natural Foods (a food co-op). Several others are now gone: Tree of Life (Auburn), We the People (Kings Beach), Washoe-Zephyr (Reno), People of Progress (Redding), and Lassen Natural Foods (Susanville). [Washoe-Zephyr was still operating when Chris wrote this; they persisted at least until May 2000, died out during the next several years, but may be subject to resurrection.]

In general, optimism about the co-op movement was high in 1978. “Co-operation-working together to benefit ourselves and others-is a beginning for us,” says a flyer about the co-op produced around this time. “A beginning? It is the start of what we all eventually want-control over our own lives. We do more than just provide ourselves with cheaper food. We choose the kinds of food, assuring ourselves good quality food. We choose whom we will purchase food from-promoting the purchase of food from alternative food groups, especially the buying of produce from town gardeners and small farmers in this area. A lot of our produce is still ‘alive’ when it reaches the store. We choose who not to purchase items from-trying not to promote companies that exploit people or our planet. We choose how it is to be purchased-supporting buying in bulk so useless packaging is not promoted.

Also we may buy the quantity we need and are not forced to buy extra because of the size package it comes in. We support all recycling and ask members to re-use bags and jars in their shopping.”

A version of this article appeared in the Davis Co-op News in October 1987. This version was published in 1992.

Part 2 • 1979-1981

Somehow the story that comes to mind when I think of my first three years on the Co-op staff is the story of what we found in the Co-op attic. I was living in a house with four other people, one of them a volunteer firefighter. One evening in 1979 his ‘squawk box’ went off and announced a call for all volunteer firefighters to 1403 Fifth Street. The Co-op address. My stomach sank.

Fortunately, Tom was only gone about an hour, and when he came back, he told me everything was fine. They’d been called out as a precaution because someone doing repairs had occasion to go into the crawl space above the ceiling and found up there a can of black gunpowder. Almost certainly it had been up there for years, left behind by some carpenter using a nail gun.

Whether the presence of gunpowder in the attic had some deep karmic significance, I don’t know, but I remember this and the next two years as years of really horrible co-op politics. As I’ve said before, this is in many ways as much a personal reminiscence as a history, and all I can give you is my own view, though I think I’ve been a pretty fair observer. It’s hard to write about this time, though, even ten years later, because I was right in the thick of it. I don’t think it’s a time anyone can be proud of.

The store ran reasonably well-with one major exception which I’ll get to-and showed steady growth in sales, from $30,000 per month in April of 1979 to $97,000 at the end of 1981. (We do $30,000 in about two days now.) Membership grew with the move to the Fifth Street store, then leveled off for about eighteen months, and began to grow again towards the end of 1981. But philosophical disputes, ideals, and personality conflicts racked the co-op, splitting the Board and staff and confusing the membership.

Controversy centered around three major issues, and probably all of them will sound familiar natural foods, member work, and expansion. All three have roots going all the way back to the buying club and the co-op’s founders. Each, in turn, came to dominate the co-op at some point, and to some extent, they still linger today, though hopefully, we’re better at dealing with them.

Growing into the 5th St. store

In early 1979 we had been in the Fifth Street store for almost a year, and when Yesterday’s Records and Books moved out of the two suites next door, the Co-op agreed to lease them. This increased our space from 2,100 to 3,300 square feet (including storeroom and office space). Frozen foods headed the list of products we hoped to add, along with more grocery and bulk items, garden supplies and housewares, and health and beauty aids. In March we bought our first electronic cash registers and scale; until then we’d been using the old mechanical kind. In April, when I was hired, remodeling of the new space was proceeding slowly. Partition walls had been knocked out, but we had to re-tile the floor, do plumbing and electrical work, and build a new walk-in refrigerator. This was financed by several thousand dollars in interest-free loans from individual members.

Kelly Cordner had been hired as the new bookkeeper in January, replacing Lois Richter who was leaving town. Lisa Vittori and I were hired as half-time “Resource Coordinators,” replacing Jim Havert who had been working for the Co-op since November and was burned out. It was impressed upon us that our primary responsibility was not to “run” the store ourselves but to coordinate the member volunteers who did, including orderers, cashiers, and the Day Coordinators who worked as volunteer floor managers one half-day a week. We were to recruit and train member workers, coordinate schedules, substitute for people who didn’t show up, manage the office, keep records, and make reports to the Policy Committee. (“Resource Coordinator” doesn’t really convey this, but the title “Coordinator of coordinators” had been considered and rejected!)

Associated Co-ops (AC) in Richmond was a cooperative wholesale warehouse owned by consumer co-ops in Northern California, including the Berkeley and Palo Alto co-ops (which then had several stores apiece). In the spring of 1979, they hired Fred Stapenhorst, former manager of the Arcata Co-op, as their Development Officer. AC offered to send Fred to study our co-op and suggest ways we could run more efficiently. Fred was friendly and competent, though I think we amused him a little- he said it had been a long time since he’d sat on a grocery pallet to do paperwork.

In July he issued his report, which made several suggestions. He pointed out that with an almost all-volunteer and very part-time staff we didn’t have much financial accountability: no one person or group was responsible for making and sticking to a budget. Inventory control, pricing, setting markups, cash security, and cash flow control were disorganized and diffuse. As a step toward regularizing our status, he recommended empowering the Board of Directors – which up until now had been mostly a figurehead – to become the Co-op’s policy-making body. He also pointed out that our expansion was stalled.

We didn’t have enough volunteer help to get the remodeling done, yet we were still paying rent on the space though it wasn’t bringing in anything. He recommended we get that done as soon as possible. These ideas were well received. He also infuriated a number of Day Coordinators and other volunteers, however, by saying it was “unrealistic” to expect volunteers to perform store functions adequately and that dependence on volunteers was the source of most, if not all, our problems. He recommended that all ordering, pricing, budgeting, and scheduling be done by paid staff. That advice we didn’t take.

1st annual August crisis

We thought things were going fairly well, though, until August. Then two things happened. First, Kelly’s first complete financial report showed that, rather than making $1300 in the fall of 1978, we had actually lost $500. Winter quarter we had lost $1300 and a further $150 spring quarter. This explained why our cash flow was so tight. Then on August 10th, we bounced a $5000 check to Associated Co-ops.

There were rumors at the time, none ever confirmed, about just how this happened. AC informed us they would make no further deliveries without COD payment unless we demonstrated “significant progress” toward meeting our financial obligations. Fred Stapenhorst told the Board he would recommend AC extend credit to us, but only if “a competent and knowledgeable manager” was put in charge, and he named Kelly. The Board agreed and hired Kelly as interim general manager, with full powers including hiring and firing staff.

Kelly acted quickly to start requiring record sheets for each cash register, sell off some excess inventory, ask for credit from our other suppliers, and draw up an “austerity budget” for finishing the expansion. This averted any more immediate crises.

Within the next month, Kelly had accepted the Board’s Management Committee’s proposal to reorganize and expand the paid staff to five: the General Manager, a Produce Manager, Grocery Manager, and two “Evening Managers.” Day Coordinators and other volunteers would continue to be used, although paid staff took over much of the ordering and receiving. The Resource Coordinator jobs were abolished; I was re-hired as an Evening Manager, but Lisa wasn’t, which she resented (though the Co-op later settled with her). Chuck Kasmire was hired as Produce Manager, Mary Tappel (a longtime member) as Grocery Manager, and John Wagoner as the other Evening Manager.

The Woodland Food Co-op was being organized around this time, and at one of our August Board meetings, amidst all our own crises, we found time to grant them “co-purchase” privileges so they could buy food at wholesale to sell at the Woodland Farmer’s Market. The Blue Mango restaurant, a workers’ collective several of our members were involved in starting, also opened on October 1st. October also saw our first newspaper advertising for the Co-op. The new store area was finished by the end of the month. I was given the job of “Communications Coordinator” and began putting out the Co-op newsletter OIKOS, which hadn’t been published since about May.

By the new year, Chuck had been hired to replace Kelly as General Manager. Kelly knew when he accepted the job in August that he would be leaving town soon, and had asked both Chuck and me if we were interested in the job (I said no way). Fred Stapenhorst had offered to spend six months with us as a consultant to help train the new manager since none of us on staff had ever run a grocery store before. Sales were running at $54,000 per month and we had about 575 active members-and at this time, remember, to be active you had to be a working member. In January for the first and only time, we had a “member work glut” where more people wanted to work in the store than there were slots for.

Whatever happened to incorporation?

If you remember, at the end of 1978 we had formed a “paper corporation”, the Davis Food Co-op, Inc., but it didn’t actually own the co-op. It took us until February 1981, two-and-a-half years, to work out the “merger” and become incorporated. Part of the problem was that we kept having to fix things in our bylaws. In February 1980 we had the first of a long series of elections to amend the bylaws; we needed to add such things as a provision for replacing board members who resigned. We had had four Board members resign in the past six months and needed to elect people to replace them at least until May when we would have our first regular Board election. An amendment was also passed allowing one paid staff member to serve on the board. Rather than sending out a mail ballot as we do now, these decisions were made at a membership meeting, though we did have to ask people to go telephone their friends so we could get enough voting members at the meeting to have a quorum (about 40).

In order to incorporate, we also had to clean up our membership files. Since we didn’t have a computer, the current membership file was kept as a card file. Each household had a card that had all household members listed and was stamped whenever someone from the household worked. The cards were kept at the cash register, and when you checked out, you removed your card and showed it to the cashier. Of course, the cards were easy to lose or get out of alphabetical order. We had files of membership applications and receipts (from the days before applications) in the office, but no one had ever compared these with the card file upfront until now. About 25% of the cards had no membership application on file; probably most of them represented membership transfers or households splitting without the proper forms being filled out. Membership at the time was in the name of everyone in the household, not just one person, so when a household split up, one membership sometimes became two or three.

We sent a letter to everyone who didn’t have an application on file, asking them to bring in some proof of membership such as an old receipt, and despite having to deal with some flak from offended members (“I’ve been a member for years; are you saying you don’t believe me?”) by the end of the year we had a membership list we were fairly confident represented reality. We still refer to that list occasionally when someone appears who’s been gone a long time.

Spring and summer 1980

This year saw us continue to expand our product line and paid staff. Our first capital improvements budget, early in the year, listed shelving, bulk units, and shopping carts, all things that still turn up in capital budgets. In March the Board approved an exemption from the work requirement for senior citizens and for new parents with babies less than six months old. (Disabled people could already be active members without working in the store.) Non-member price in the store changed from a flat 35% mark-up to “suggested retail,” meaning the gap between member and non-member prices could vary from a few cents to a substantial amount.

My job of “Communications Coordinator” was split into three: Communications Coordinator, Newsletter Editor, and the Board Secretary, who was responsible for Board minutes and membership records. Greg Voss, recently hired as Dairy/Deli Manager, took over the newsletter and (unilaterally) changed its name from OIKOS to “Coop News.” A cartoon pig saying “Oikos!” appeared in the margins occasionally for a while. Articles on food, cooking, health, and nutrition made up a major part of the “new” newsletter (it had been mostly store news and announcements before). The type got bigger, too.

A real landmark in the summer of 1980 was frozen orange juice. We finally got a freezer big enough to start offering frozen orange juice and frozen fish, both from Associated Co-ops. Frozen OJ had been our #1 most requested item as long as I’d been working there. The problem was, the minimum order was something like 10 cases and we had nowhere to put it. In the meantime, members would go to another store just for that one item, and – you know what grocery shopping is like – wind up spending $25.

Controversy rears its ugly head

I haven’t said much about the three controversies I mentioned at the beginning of this article. The debate about natural foods had been simmering all along, going all the way back to the first store on L Street. In July an indignant member wrote in the newsletter, “Since I arrived in Davis in September I have witnessed a steady progression away from goals and services which are considered alternative and an increasing supply of items which can be found in every supermarket in the nation. Organic produce is often not available. High-quality vitamins have been replaced by the cheaper non-organic brand. I question whether the majority of shoppers at the Davis Food Co-op want to be able to purchase there the same products that are available at Albertson’s or Safeway. These products feed that corporate entity that is responsible for black genocide, Rancho Seco, and Napa State Hospital among other ills in our society. If consumers really want to support these people, I suggest they do it at Safeway and leave the Co-op for those who really want an alternative.”

Others were pleased by such landmarks as frozen orange juice. We finally got a freezer big enough in the summer of 1980 to start offering frozen orange juice and fish. Frozen OJ had been our #1 most requested item as long as I’d been working there. The problem was, the minimum order was something like 10 cases and we had nowhere to put it. In the meantime, members would go to another store just for that one item and wind up spending $25.

Member work also remained controversial. Unlike the “Resource Coordinators,” most of the later staff were hired more for their experience in managing and moving groceries than for any particular desire to work with volunteers. Both sides found this difficult. “Members can descend upon the store armed with twenty-six instant demands, regardless of the workload staff already has,” says an opinion article in the newsletter around this time. “Staff can become so involved with a hundred things that must be done that they can’t take the time to talk to members. Members get sore because the things they expect aren’t always done for them. The staff gets sore when members take forty-five minutes to get a bucket of mop water.” Various co-op “experts” disagree publicly over whether member labor in the store actually saved money or whether it cost more in supervision than it was worth. Yet members in this co-op have always valued being able to work in the store, and we’re one of the few co-ops anywhere near our size that still has a member work program today.

The Woodland Food Co-op was being organized around this time, and at one of our August Board meetings, amidst all our own crises, we found time to grant them “co-purchase” privileges so they could buy food at wholesale to sell at the Woodland Farmer’s Market. The Blue Mango restaurant also opened on October 1st. In May, “Women in Co-ops” held its second annual retreat. The Co-op also participated in a panel discussion with the Blue Mango, Sunwise Housing Co-op, Winds of Change alternative newspaper, and the just-forming Cable TV Co-op on “The future of cooperatives in Yolo County.” We also had our first Co-op sponsored City softball team, complete with hats.

Part 3 • 1981-1984

There was a noticeable lightening-up of the atmosphere in the Davis Food Co-op towards the end of 1981. Part of the reason was that the membership voted that November not to move into the empty Safeway building on G Street. Larry Pavey, another supermarket operator, signed a lease for that site, and so that option was no longer available to us, at least for the present. That took off some of the pressure.

The other reason for the new atmosphere, I think, was the new General Manager. Carol Shearly had taken over in June from Chuck Kasmire, who had been having increasing difficulty-it shows up in the Board minutes-dealing with Board and committee members who often didn’t agree with him. Co-op membership had also stopped growing during Chuck’s eighteen months as manager, though sales continued to increase.

Carol showed an immediate talent for conveying to people on all sides of a controversy that she was listening to what they said. Feeling that they were being heard made even the most vocal critics calm down and start to consider how they might work with each other, rather than trying to out-shout or manipulate each other.

Carol was someone who had come “up through the ranks.” She started as a volunteer Day Coordinator (equivalent to today’s SuperWorker), was hired in 1980 as a floor manager, took a summer off to backpack the length of California with her two sisters (their T-shirts said “Slowly but Shearly”), and became dairy/ deli manager before being hired as General Manager.

Hopeful times

For those who see co-ops, not just as individual businesses, but as parts of a comprehensive co-op way of life, the early 80s were hopeful years. The Blue Mango restaurant, a workers’ collective, opened in October (Co-op Month) 1979. A food co-op was being organized in Woodland. A cable TV co-op, the nation’s first, was bidding for Davis’s cable TV franchise. In the summer of 1980, we co-sponsored the first of several annual panel discussions on “The Future of Cooperatives in Yolo County,” with Sunwise cooperative housing and Winds of Change alternative newspaper. David Thompson comments these are the only years he really felt like part of a “co-op movement.”

1981 saw the completion at long last of the Davis Food Co-op’s incorporation. In 1978 we had formed a “paper corporation”, the “Davis Food Co-op, Inc.,” but it didn’t actually own the Co-op. Then we had to negotiate a merger or “asset transfer” between the Co-op and the corporation. Every time we consulted a new lawyer, we had to spend at least twenty minutes explaining this peculiar situation. We also kept having to fix essential things in our bylaws to make them legal and functional. And we had to clean up our membership files, which had mostly been kept as a card file and never cross-checked. Finally, on February 2, 1981, the Board signed the transfer papers, to the accompaniment of speeches and champagne.

These years also saw our struggles to organize member workers into “teams,” a concept that worked well for some other co-ops but never caught on here. The theory was that you chose a team to sign up for- say, the “Monday Night Food Ball”-and showed up on the third Monday of every month at 8 pm to stock the grocery shelves. Unfortunately, the number of Davisites who have schedules regular enough to make this work can be counted on one hand. Teams also take somewhat more effort on the part of the staff.

Member work in the store-which was still a requirement for everyone except senior citizens and the disabled-was itself still controversial. “Stocking shelves, cutting cheese, and mopping floors teach little of the cooperative spirit,” said Grocery Manager Tom Merrill in the newsletter. “Minor social benefits aside, the current volunteer system costs more than it benefits. Products are constantly mispriced, mislabeled, and improperly stocked.”

Others disagreed. “Having members work in the store means people from every household have regular contact with the inside workings,” said another writer. “Like the city kids who think milk grows in bottles, we usually don’t get to see this side of things. Here, members’ arms and backs learn what fifty pounds of rice feels like. We open cartons. We see invoices and sales journal tapes and handle money. Many members who work want to know more about how the Co-op runs, and we want a say in how things are done and why.”

Besides ongoing political controversies, we had our share of other excitement. We began selling beer and wine in the summer of 1981 (58% of members voting in the spring election approved). Bulk spring water arrived in September. The first annual Co-op Halloween Party, held in our parking lot, drew 350 people. November saw the first annual Davis Wine Festival, organized by member worker Ed Blonz, who still comes by the Co-op on occasion when he’s in town. (The Board voted him a “Golden Carrot” for his many hours of work.) The day before Thanksgiving-which has always been our biggest sales day of the year-the deli walk-in broke down while filled with turkeys.

And then, of course, there was the November vote on the move to G Street, which produced lots of heated rhetoric, active campaigning by all sides and eventually a 55%-45% “no” vote.

1982: from down to up

The bad news hit early in 1982: though everything looked like it was going well, and sales were continuing to increase, the Co-op was losing money. An audit by Lynn MacDonald from Associated Co-ops showed we had actually been losing money for about two years. Some of it was “paper losses,” from not calculating depreciation and accruals correctly, but that still had an impact on our cash flow. Also, our lack of capital-each member at this point had only $10 in shares-meant we were trying to pay for long-term things like remodeling entirely out of current cash flow.

To our credit, we immediately tightened our belts. The margin was raised, staff hours re-organized, a leafletting campaign was started to boost sales, and the Board suspended share refunds for departing members until the situation eased. (People got their money about a year later.) Carol also started monthly inventories and began calculating the margin separately for each department to try to locate areas that weren’t doing well.

The Co-op’s strength was shown clearly by how quickly we began to recover. In the first quarter of our fiscal year (October through December 1981) we had lost $6,000. In the next quarter, we made $6,000, and by June 1982 our shares were no longer “impaired” (worth less than their purchase price).

Looking back on the year, Ann Evans, then the Co-op’s Board President, commented, “Given what we now know about the finances of the store, I’m glad we didn’t move [to G Street]. I hope we will continue to find a common mission to work towards together.”

More money measures

To improve financial control, Carol came up with a new category of member workers: cashiers became “Super-Workers,” members who work 4 hours each week and get a bigger discount, rather than working just once a month. The Board also authorized Carol to hire paid cashiers for busy times when even Super-Workers’ improved skills couldn’t keep up.

Another taste of financial medicine was the Co-op’s first share drive. Actually, we had tried a voluntary share drive the previous fall, proposed by Jon Li, but only $890 was raised. The Board reluctantly decided it would use its powers under the bylaws to “assess” a share for the first time, and announced that all shareholders were required to invest another $10 in shares by April 30th. As with any innovation, this provoked howls of protest from some members, who claimed their initial $10 in shares, plus the $5 membership fee, should be a “lifetime membership.” ($15 is still our starting investment-it hasn’t changed since 1978.) The net effect of all these financial measures was positive. Carol Shearly announced at the November 1982 membership meeting that we were one of only two co-ops in California to have made money in the fiscal year 1981-82. In one year we went from being $21,000 in the hole to only $7,000, and by the end of 1982, we were completely recovered.

We also won a bet we had on with Sacramento Natural Foods Co-op that we would break $1 million in annual sales before they did. In mid-August 1982 we passed our millionth dollar for the year.

The Co-op and the community

1982 was also a year when we became more conscious of our interaction with the community. We began doing regular price comparisons and publishing the results in our newsletter. (Member prices were 6% cheaper than a composite “basket” of the lowest prices anywhere in town, 15% cheaper than any other store.)

Education Committee announced a contest for a new Co-op logo late in 1981. Some members had always loved the irreverent humor of the “carrot and fist,” our logo since 1978. Others were embarrassed by it, feeling it labeled us as self-righteous idealists, or conveyed a dated, “sixties” image. An in-store ballot early in 1982, however, with a dozen entries to choose from, yielded an overwhelming victory for the carrot and fist, it got nearly twice as many votes as the “circle of wheat”, the next runner-up.

In August of 1982 we started a new tradition that lasted several years, the annual Tomato Festival, held in our parking lot. Activities included Best of Show tomato judging, bobbing for tomatoes, tomato juggling, door prizes, musicians, truckload tomato sales, specials on Co-op tomato products, member prices for all shoppers that day, and (for the brave) hand-cranked Tomato Ice Cream. (“It was much better the second year when we left out the cinnamon and nutmeg,” says Carol Shearly. “The first year, it tasted like ketchup.”)

The Co-op had been boycotting Nestlé products for some time, but in the summer of 1982, we began boycotting Coors products after a presentation to the Board by a group of concerned members. We also carried Coca-Cola- for about two weeks; it was dropped when many members protested.

The Safeway in Davis opened its “bulk natural foods section” in the fall of 1982 with considerable fanfare. A former Co-op employee, Ron Coleman, had actually gone to work for Safeway when they announced they would begin featuring “natural foods,” though he says he became discouraged very quickly over how little he was able to get them to do.

We sent “spies” from the Co-op Price Comparison Team to check Safeway out. They reported the “bulk section” consisted of 42 items, half of them carob- or yogurt-coated. Of the rest, 5 were salted, and 9 were dried fruit; only 10 were plain, unsalted beans, nuts or grains. The Co-op at the same time had 294 bulk items, including about 150 herbs and spices.

1983: It was a very good year

Financial reports continued positive all through 1983. There actually isn’t as much folklore to report as in previous years, because on the whole things ran fairly smoothly.

We got awnings for the front of the store in March, which earned us a PG&E rebate for energy savings. The whole front of the building was glass and faced west, which meant it got full summer sun, and the awnings cut down on our need for air conditioning. There were very few buildings on that side of Fifth Street then, and I remember we got to see some great views of double rainbows over Sacramento.

In April we hosted a regional co-op conference on education (with some great workshops, if I do say so) that drew about 65 people from all over California. In May, Carol Shearly went to the Consumer Cooperative Management Association conference where a group of successful co-ops founded in the 1970s (including ours) decided they had moved beyond being the “third wave” of co-ops founded in the U.S. and renamed themselves the “permanent wave.” (The first two “waves” of co-ops were started at the turn of the century and in the 1930s.)

In June the Co-op softball team won a game for the first time ever. In July our refrigeration failed, ruining a lot of produce and all our ice cream. In August the Board voted to assess shareholders another $10 share, due November 30th. We started buying our herbs and spices from Frontier Cooperative Herbs in Iowa. In September the newsletter ran an article asking members “What does Co-op Label mean to you?” “Applesauce,” members replied, not meaning their opinion, but naming the most popular Co-op Label product (we still carry it, along with Co-op Label sliced peaches, pears, albacore tuna, and laundry detergent). A group of hard-working members published our co-op cookbook, Meatless Meals in Minutes.

But there was really only one issue in 1983, one that outweighed all others: G Street.

The return of G Street

The old Safeway building at 620 G Street had never really gone away as a possible future site for the Co-op. The Co-op was continuing to grow, both in membership and sales, and while some members maintained we could do a lot more with our Fifth Street store, Carol’s comment was that “historically, the DFC has responded to the growth in membership by moving into more suites in the building, but this option is reaching its limits.” By this time there was only one suite left, the one facing on Fifth Street. And we had heard that Pavey was having trouble at G Street.

A Futures Subcommittee (Jim Gray, David Thompson, and Jackie Lundy) was formed in February, and in June they reported to a special membership meeting on “Co-op Futures.” They found only four possibilities: expanding the current store; an old Subaru dealership on Olive Drive next to the underpass (now Design House furniture); the location that is now Farmtown; and G Street. “Satellite” stores might be possible in Senda Nueva or Village Homes, but the available sites were very small and not very attractive.

Expanding the current store seemed less feasible the more it was looked at. Our landlord was not interested in expanding the Fifth Street building, or in building on the vacant lot next door. The building had never been designed as a grocery store, and we were already “maxed out” in terms of electrical load. In fact, Peter Rosenthal, the electrician who put in a lot of volunteer hours our first couple of years at Fifth Street, had done some fairly creative things to balance the electrical load so all the refrigeration units would not come on at the same time and blow all the circuit breakers.

The Olive Drive site wasn’t designed as a grocery store either and would have the same problem. It was also hard to get to by car, and very hard on a bicycle, and we would have to get a zoning variance from the City (which we already had at Fifth Street). The Farmtown site was still a couple of years away from being ready for development. A “satellite” store at Village Homes would be only 600 square feet, about the size of our first tiny store on L Street. That left G Street. The membership meeting authorized Futures Subcommittee to pursue “non-binding negotiations.”

The expansion has always been a sensitive subject at a Co-op many people have loved in ways you don’t usually feel about a grocery store. Every expansion we’ve ever had-all the way back to buying club days-there have been a substantial number of people, sometimes as much as a quarter of active members, who have felt we should stay just the way we are. Every time we expand, a few people leave, and often they are people who cared a lot about the co-op and contributed a lot to it. On the other hand, every time we expand, we gain a lot of new people. Is it worth it? It must be.

In September the rumors became reality: Pavey’s Market at G Street went out of business. Futures Subcommittee stepped up its negotiations. Finally, in December they had a tentative agreement, and the Board held two emergency meetings to hammer out the terms and approve putting the proposal to a member vote.

“I think this is an unbelievably good offer,” Carol said. “Due to an unusual set of circumstances, we would have an opportunity to move into a store, already remodeled and set up with excellent equipment and shelving, for about 1/3 of what those improvements originally cost.” Produce Manager Carol Johnson was particularly impressed with the produce coolers: not only did they sound an alarm when something went wrong, but-rumor said-they could even be programmed to dial the manager’s phone number!

“Why should the Co-op consider moving this time, when the move was rejected two years ago?” Carol Shearly asked in her newsletter article. “Very briefly, (1) The Co-op is in a much stronger financial position than before, (2) The equipment and remodeling costs would be low, and (3) The interest rates on bank loans would be much lower.” In 1981 the prime lending rate was running around 20%, a figure that seems almost unbelievable now; in 1983 it was 11%. And the Co-op had gone from being $20,000 in debt to having more than $20,000 in net earnings.

The big vote

The information packet and ballot for the Pavey’s move was mailed out to members early January 1984, with ballots due the 23rd. The proposal read:

“The membership of the Davis Food Co-op authorizes the Board of Directors to do the following for the purpose of moving the Co-op to the former Pavey’s Market (1) Sign an agreement to purchase inventory and lease equipment… (2) Borrow working capital up to $30,000… provided that (a) the Board finds the move financially feasible, and (b) the plan for operating the store does not differ substantially from the proposal mailed to the membership, and (C) any changes in the plan do not substantially change the nature of the Cooperative as it relates to member work, member-worker control, commitment to present merchandising practices, or sales predominantly to members.”

With those provisions, the measure passed, with 76% voting in favor and the biggest voter turnout in the Co-op’s history. At its February 27th meeting, the Board signed the lease. “I am allowed to describe this as a historic moment,” Carol said.

The Board minutes also record that a preliminary inspection of G Street that the roof leaked.

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Why Glass Jars Make Going Plastic-Free Easy

(7/12/20: Unfortunately the Davis Food Co-op is not allowing outside containers such as jars right now because of the Covid-19 pandemic. This page will be updated once the situation has changed and outside containers are allowed in our store once more.)

There is a truth about going plastic-free that none can deny, which is that it takes a certain level of preparation. If you want to avoid reaching for plastic bags, cutlery, or straws out of convenience then you need to have brought your own sustainable version along with you or be willing to go without. And going without isn’t always an option. 

But what one quickly realizes is that toting around their own sustainable silverware, to-go ware, and a stash of reusable bags takes up a fair bit of space. This is why it is important to find ways to optimize your strategy for going plastic-free to make it feel as easy for you as possible. That’s where glass jars come in.

Many people find when going zero-waste that glass jars are the swiss army knives of storage whether it’s for dry goods in your pantry or taking your lunch on the go. If you take your coffee and lunch in a couple of jars you can rinse them out and hit the bulk section of the grocery store.

Perfect for taking coffee or lunch on the go

Of course, there are many amazing options for this purpose out there already. From stainless steel tiffins to stasher bags to candy-colored Klean Kanteens, we are certainly living in an age where eco-friendly to-go ware is abundant. So why choose to use a glass container? Because it is extremely cheap and can suit just about any purpose you can think of.

As was stated above a good rinse is all that is necessary to transition your jar from your lunch container to your coffee cup to your shopping vessel. This means that you have less specialized items that you need to buy to go plastic-free and you end up carrying around less stuff.

If you haven’t made a rainbow salad in a jar, pasta salad in a jar, overnight oats, or chia seed pudding before we couldn’t recommend it more. The end result is fewer dishes to wash and a photo-worthy meal.

Great for grocery shopping

A mason jar is typically the perfect companion to shopping in the Bulk section of the grocery store. While the Co-op is not currently allowing outside containers in the store yet, now is the perfect time to be comping up with new strategies for sustainability once the current crisis is over. Once we have made sure that the health of our community has been protected we need to make sure to safeguard the health of our planet as well. And shopping in the Bulk department isn’t just good for the planet, it’s good for your wallet. By skipping the packaging you also avoid price markups and can buy the exact quantity of an item that you need without any going to waste.

When shopping in Bulk you’ll want to bring as many jars with you as you can carry. At the Davis Food Co-op, the Bulk section is full of amazing options for grains, beans, nuts, and even candy. You’re sure to find something you didn’t expect that you’ll want to try!

All you need to do to use your jars in Bulk is to write the tare weight, which can be determined with a scale located in Bulk, and the product PLU. There is masking tape for this purpose available in the Bulk Department. They’ll know what to do with all of the numbers at the checkout.

If you’re a pro at bringing your jar and know what your staple items are you can always put the tare and PLU on your jars with a label maker or write them on the lid with a sharpie to streamline the process.

Clear Kitchen Organization

If you use your mason jar to stock up on your favorite treats or staple pantry items at the store, unloading your items is a breeze. No need to open boxes and tear through layer after layer of plastic packaging, all you do once you get home is put your items away in your cupboards. But even if weren’t able to shop in bulk on your last trip to the store your glass jars can still come in handy in your pantry.

Decanting your grocery items into glass jars not only removes the visual clutter of all the packaging but also allows you to better visually assess what you have stocked. Most importantly though, decanting helps you extend the shelf-life of the products you have purchased.

Does this mean I need to go out and buy a bunch of mason jars?

Not at all! There are so many products that are packaging in glass jars you are likely to already be buying that it is likely unnecessary that you’d need to go out of your way to buy jars themselves. From tomato sauce to yogurt or even ice cream, there are many products that are sold in glass jars that would be convenient for you to wash and reuse. If you decide that you’re committed to the #jarlife then by all means buy some for yourself, just don’t forget that you can still find them in great condition secondhand! We also sell many different varieties of glass jars here at the Co-op to suit whatever needs you might have.

We hope that you found these tips helpful, and if you already are aware of the wonder of glass jars then please share this article with someone who needs some inspiration to reduce their plastic use! Share your jar meals and hacks with us on Facebook or Instagram using the hashtag #dfcplasticfree.

Written by Rachel Heleva, Marketing Specialist

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Plant-Based Taco Tuesday

Looking for a way to switch up your Taco Tuesday? We have a recipe that is plant-based, protein-packed, and perfect for a laid-back weeknight meal. Watch the video below for an explanation of what ingredients we chose and a walkthrough of the steps. The ingredients and instructions are listed below.

Ingredients

1 to 2 medium sweet potatoes, cut into 1/2-inch cubes

1 15-oz can black beans, drained and rinsed

1/2 medium yellow onion, diced

1 jalapeño, stemmed, seeded, and minced

1 clove garlic, minced

1 teaspoon chili powder

1/2 teaspoon ground cumin

1/2 teaspoon salt

Olive oil

Apple cider vinegar

10-12 corn tortillas (use GF if desired)

Tofu “cheese” crumbles (1 C crumbled extra firm tofu, 1 tsp salt, 2 tbsp Nutritional Yeast)

Garnishes: 1/2 cup salsa, avocado, fresh cilantro, lime wedges

Instructions

  1. Preheat oven to 425F. 
  2. Coat the sweet potatoes in about 2 tbsp of oil, salt, chili powder, and cumin. Then put on a baking sheet in the oven for about 15 minutes. Stir and flip, then roast another 15 minutes. 
  3. While this is roasting, saute the onions in about a tbsp of oil. Just before they are soft, add the garlic and jalapeño, saute for another minute. Then add the drained and rinsed black beans and a splash of apple cider vinegar. Cook until hot.
  4. Crumble extra firm tofu into a bowl, add salt and nutritional yeast. Mix well. This is your cheese!
  5.  Warm the tortillas in a dry skillet or in the microwave. 
  6. Let everyone fill their tacos with sweet potatoes, beans, avocado, salsa, cilantro, and cheese! Yum!

This recipe was developed by our Education and Outreach Specialist, Madison Suoja, and the demonstration was done by our staff member Rheanna Smith. Rheanna has a background in nutrition and food science, and along with working in many departments here at the Davis Food Co-op, she actively runs a food blog containing healthy recipes and nutrition tips. Keep an eye on our Co-op blog to see some of her recipes and give her Instagram account a follow for additional health tips and ideas, @rheannnabanana.

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Staff Fair Trade Picks

Throughout the month of May, we celebrate Fair Trade products and the partnerships that produce them. In-store we will have signage for our staff’s favorite Fair Trade Certified items, and we will update this list throughout May with any new favorites that we find!

What is Fair Trade?

Fair Trade is both a philosophy and a business model. It keeps small farmers and artisans an active part of the marketplace by fairly compensating them for their work, and through various labeling systems allows consumers to shop in a way that aligns with their values.

It also:

Raises the incomes of small-scale farmers, farmworkers, and artisans

Equitably distributes the economic gains, opportunities, and risks associated with the production and sale of these goods

Supports democratically owned and controlled organizations

Promotes labor rights and the right of workers to organize

Promotes safe and sustainable farming methods and working conditions

“Matr Boomie makes such cute accessories that you can feel good about buying because you know that you are supporting a good cause. They pay the artisans that they work with very well and reinvest a portion of the profits back into their communities.”

Karla, Wellness and General Merchandise Manager

“I love the rich flavor of this tea, it has notes of bergamot just like a proper earl grey should!”

Derlina, Front-end Supervisor

“Dr. Bronner’s coconut oil is an amazing product because of how versatile it is! I use it in baking, to make my own toothpaste, and as a lotion during Spring and Summer to help keep mosquitoes away!⁠”

Madison, Education and Outreach Coordinator

“Divine uses only Fair Trade Certified chocolate from farms owned by their farmers, so you can feel good about indulging in these bars. The white chocolate strawberry and milk chocolate toffee are my favorites.”

Matt, Bulk Department

 

“Coffee is what keeps me going and I love that I can support the farmers that produce it by buying from conscious companies such as Equal Exchange and Pachamama.”

Rocio, Operations and Facilities Manager

“A high-quality olive oil is great for entertaining or using in special meals, I like this one for its flavors of almond and spices. La Riojana is an Argentinian farmer-owned co-op that is the biggest exporter of Fair Trade wine in the world.”

Roberto, Front-end Supervisor

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Making Your Own Sourdough Starter

The shelter in place order has led many to take up their whisks and spatulas and bake their hearts out. However, this has also led to may supplies that we are used to having available, yeast we’re looking at you, become near impossible to find.

Don’t despair, your dreams of turning your kitchen into your own personal bakery need not be lost, a sourdough starter is surprisingly easy to make. This is why we would like to show you how to make a sourdough starter with nothing but whole wheat flour and water. 

What Is A Sourdough Starter?

A sourdough starter is a concoction of flour and water that captures the wild yeast and bacteria that are present both in the ingredients and the air. This is so convenient because instead of having to buy yeast from the store, you allow the natural fermentation process to take place. Once your starter is ready to use it becomes akin to a low-maintenance pet that you keep in your kitchen and have to feed in order to keep it alive. 

Why You Should Make One

Well before all else, sourdough bread rests at the pinnacle of deliciousness. Once you have one you can add it to just about any recipe to pack in extra flavor. One of our favorite things to make with our starters is pancakes!

But research also suggests that the cultures in sourdough break down gluten, making it easier to digest.

Getting Started

The process of getting your sourdough starter thriving can take about five days.

What You’ll Need

If you have a kitchen scale that is ideal for measuring out ingredients, but if you don’t have a scale measuring cups work just fine.

  • 1 cup(113g) rye or whole wheat flour(additional flour needed for feedings)
  • ½ cup(113 g) cool water(filtered water preferably)

Feeding Your Starter

Ideas on what and when to feed your starter differ. For this guide, we will be recommending that you feed your starter twice a day after the first day that you put it together.

Day 1

Combine the flour and water in a non-reactive container. Clear glass is best as it lets you see the progress of your starter most easily. If you have a Mason or Weck jar on hand this is a great time to use it! In any case, you want to pick a container that will be large enough to accommodate the growth of your starter.

Once you have ensured that all of the flour has been incorporated into the mixture you want to cover it loosely and let it rest at room temperature for 24 hours.

Day 2

You may or may not have seen any changes after the first 24 hours. Bubbles or not just trust the process and continue on! In the morning and at night you must discard anywhere from 1/4 to 1/2 cup of your starter, depending on how much it has grown. Then add 1/2 cup rye or whole wheat flour and 1/3 cup water to the remaining starter. Mix well, cover, and let rest at room temperature.

Day 3

By this point, you should be noticing changes with your starter. An aroma, bubbles, and expansion all mean that you are on the right track. In the morning and at night discard anywhere from 1/4 to 1/2 cup of your starter, depending on how much it has grown. Then add 1/2 cup rye or whole wheat flour and 1/3 cup water to the remaining starter. Mix well, cover, and let rest at room temperature.

Day 4

In the morning and at night discard anywhere from 1/4 to 1/2 cup of your starter, depending on how much it has grown. Then add 1/2 cup rye or whole wheat flour and 1/3 cup water to the remaining starter. Mix well, cover, and let rest at room temperature.

Day 5

On day five you should expect your starter to have doubled in volume and have a multitude of bubbles. It is also normal for it to be giving off a tangy aroma at this stage so do not be concerned. In the morning and at night discard anywhere from 1/4 to 1/2 cup of your starter, depending on how much it has grown. Then add 1/2 cup rye or whole wheat flour and 1/3 cup water to the remaining starter. Mix well, cover, and let rest at room temperature.

If it is not at this stage yet continue feeding and discarding in the morning and at night until it reaches this point before moving on to the steps outlined for Day 6.

Day 6

 Discard all but 1/2 cup of your starter and feed it as usual. Let your starter rest at room temperature for 6 to 8 hours; by now it should be fully active, with bubbles breaking the surface. 

How To Tell If Your Starter Is Ready

One of the most common ways to tell if your starter is ready to use in recipes is to do what is referred to as the Float Test! All that you need to do is place a tablespoon of your starter in water and if it floats its ready to go!

Using Your Starter

When following a recipe simply remove as much of your starter as is called for! If you do not have enough at the time simply continue feedings until you do.

We can’t wait to see all of the wonderful things that you make with your starters! Feel free to tag us with your creations or documentation of your growing process on social media. We have started a starter on the day of this blog and will be updating you with its own progress!

Maintaining Your Starter

You’ll want to store your starter in the refrigerator and feed it regularly. Discard 1/4 to 1/2 C of you starter and give it 1/2 cup of flour and 1/3 cup of water once or twice a week. Make sure to mix well and time and now cover it. The container should not be airtight.

The night before you wish to use you starter, discard 1/4 to 1/2 C of you starter and add 1 C of flour and 2/3 C of water, then set it on your counter with a non-airtight lid (I use a piece of cloth!)

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