Bring on the Bugs

You know, in a good way!

They’re called beneficial bugs, after all, because they’re a boon to your garden and the planet. Beneficial bugs fall into one or more of three categories

  • pollinators: these bugaboos are an essential component in the reproduction of about 80% of flowering plant species (150 food crops in the US, including most grains and fruits, rely on pollination!)
  • predators: some insects eliminate pests by eating them
  • parasitoids: these bugs lay their eggs in or on pests, which the larvae eventually eat

Predators and parasitoids keep populations of aphids, leafhoppers, mites, thrips, and more potentially damaging pests in your garden under control.

 

Pollinators are essential

You probably know that pollinators are responsible for the reproduction of most flowering plants (about $10 billion worth of food annually). But there are additional benefits to having these bugs around too.

  • clean air: pollinators are an essential part of the reproduction of flowering plants. These plants, which breath in carbon dioxide, are a vital part of Earth’s carbon cycle, drawing carbon out of the atmosphere and into our soils.
  • clean water: pollinators are similarly involved in Earth’s water cycle and in preventing erosion of Earth’s soils by maintaining plant populations.
  • ethnobotany: the role of pollinators in our lives is culturally important to many communities, including Indigenous communities. Pollinators play a role in food plants, medicinal plants, plant-based dyes, and in cultural symbolism.

Bees, butterflies, flies, and moths are the pollinators you want to bring to your yard.

Bring on the bugs!

There are a few steps you can take to make your yard attractive and safe for beneficial bugs.

1. Create habitat

These Beneficial Bug Houses provide insects a place to nest and rest. By placing these houses near existing insect hotspots (think hedges, nectar-rich flower beds, ponds or streams) you can give them a chance to thrive and, in return, they will maintain a healthy equilibrium in your yard. Look for these in the Green Patch and in-store. 

2. Plant the right plants

There are many pollinator-friendly plants at the Co-op. Floral Specialist Jennifer has brought in three varieties of sunflowers, foxglove, and herbs including Thai basil, culinary select sage, stevia, and French thyme just last week. 

Starts arriving this week (Thursday 5/5) include lavender, margarita yellow osteospermum, cosmos, asclepias red butterfly bush, marigolds, nasturtiums, zinnias, and more!

These five plant families will pack the most punch when it comes to attracting beneficial insects to your garden:

  • Aster Family (Asteraceae): ageratums, asters, chrysanthemums, cosmos, dahlias, marigolds, and zinnias
  • Carrot family (Apiaceae): Angelica, caraway, carrot, celery, chervil, cowbane, cumin, fennel, parsley, parsnip, Queen Anne’s lace
  • Legume family (Fabaceae): green bean, lima bean, scarlet runner bean, chickpea, fenugreek, lentil, lupine, pagoda tree, smoke tree, soybean, tamarind, wisteria
  • Mustard family (Brassicaceae): arugula, bok choy, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, collard, kale, kohlrabi, rutabaga, turnip, horseradish, rocket, shepherd’s purse, watercress, white mustard, wild radish
  • Verbena family (Verbenaceae): Verbena (also known as vervain) family, includes 31 genera and nearly 920 species including lemon verbena, blue vervain, lollipop, meteor shower, Greystone Daphne, homestead purple, and Texas rose.

3. Provide a water source

Most beneficial bugs have wings, so they’ll take off in search of water if they can’t find any in your garden. If you use sprinklers, the puddles that form from use should be enough to keep your garden friends hydrated. If you use a drip system or water by hand, you’ll need to provide additional water. Fill up a saucer with water and some rocks. Refill on dry days (maybe twice during scorching summer days). To keep these bugaboos working in your garden, be sure to maintain their water source!

4. Creepy crawlies need love too

Some beneficial bugs keep low to the ground in search of pests that live in the soil. During hot daytime hours, these insects need protection and rest. Mulching your garden beds gives them protection while keeping the soil moist (good for beneficial bugs and plants). Stepping stones, especially with flat surfaces, are a favorite of creepy crawlies too.

Questions? Ask Jennifer! 

Jennifer is our new Floral Specialist and an excellent resource for home gardeners! You can find her watering plants on the Green Patch most days or ask any Co-op employee if Jennifer is in. 

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Ideas for Celebrating Earth Day

Ideas for Celebrating Earth Day!

Learn Something New!

Learn a new skill that helps limit your impact on the Environment. 

Learn about our native landscape 

Gardening

Spend Time Outside

Give Up a Less Sustainable Habit for the Day

  • Go Car-less for the Day. Ride your bike or take the bus.
  • Have a Veg Day! Check out our Recipes Page or 31 Days of Vegetable Guide for some meat-free ideas. 
  • Bring reusable (if you don’t already!). Bring a reusable cup for coffee, bags for groceries, and containers for take-out. 

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Container Gardening 101

Good news!

Davis is perfectly situated for a long and productive growing season. Even tiny apartment balcony gardens can be very productive with the right conditions. But container gardens aren’t just for folks with limited space. Here are the big beats when it comes to container gardens:

  • Most things can be planted in containers, but may require additional care
  • Great for small spaces like apartment patios and balconies
  • Ideal for beginning gardeners
  • Portable, but can be (very) heavy
  • Requires more watering as pots dry out quicker

To be clear, this blog will focus on growing edible fruits and vegetables in containers. 

Before we move on, consider your light

Although some plants do well in partial shade, you’ll want to “plant” your container garden in an area that receives bright sunlight for at least 6 hours a day. If you have a small space, this may mean placing your containers wherever you get good sun (on the balcony, on the side of the house, front porch, back porch, a perpetually open, sunny window, etc.). I have fruits and veggies in containers all over the place.

Step 1: Decide what you want to grow

Start by deciding what you want to eat. Then take into consideration what kind of light and space you have (see the chart at the end of the Edible Garden Guide for a complete list of edible plants to grow in our USDA Zone). 

If you’re still not sure, starting small is always a good idea. A tomato plant, a few containers with strawberries, and a trellis for pole beans is a great way to start your container garden. Unless you are an avid gardener, I recommend starting with plant starts (instead of seeds). You can purchase starts at the Co-op during the warmer months.

Step 2: Choose your containers

Your containers can vary in size, shape, and fanciness (a lot of my container garden is in plastic pots I got for free from a local nursery) as long as they allow for good draining. Let the plant’s needs determine the container. For example, multiple strawberry plants can be grown together in one large container, but each cabbage plant needs its own large container.

You can even plant trees in containers. Citrus is a popular container plant. I have a grafted stone fruit tree in a pot in my backyard. It’s about to bloom for the second time!

Here are some minimum soil depths for healthy growth in containers: 

4-5″: chives, lettuce, radishes, other salad greens, basil, coriander

6-7″: bush beans, garlic, kohlrabi, onions, Asian greens, peas, mint, thyme

8-9″: pole beans, carrots, chard, cucumber, eggplant, fennel, leeks, peppers, spinach, parsley, rosemary

10-12″: beets, broccoli, okra, potatoes, sweet corn, summer squash, dill, lemongrass

Here are some minimum volume requirements for containers:

Step 3: Plant

When planting, fill containers with an organic outdoor raised bed/potting mixture. Create small wells for the starts. Loosen starts from their plastic containers and gently shake dirt from the roots (be careful not to damage the young, tender roots). Transfer to the new container, placing each start into a well. Fill with dirt and compact with your hands so that the plant is firmly “tucked in”. Water. 

Reference the Edible Garden Guide for specific watering instructions. Depending on your containers, your plants may need more watering as pots dry out faster than raised beds or planted rows, especially in the summer. 

I recommend using mulch to cover soil (cover soil only, not any part of the plant) in your containers as well. It helps prevent water loss to evaporation, mitigates splashing during watering which can spread pathogens from soil to leaves, and keeps soil surface temperatures down during hot summer months. 

DIY Mulch materials include herbicide and pesticide-free grass clippings, organic burlap, straw or hay, shredded newspaper, coconut coir, or similar natural materials.

Step 4: Maintain your Garden

Check on your containers everyday. Remove weeds, pests, leaf litter, and other waste. Water, remove dead growth, and prune as necessary. 

Treating your garden with compost, or fertilizer, is always a good idea, especially 2-6 weeks after planting. Make your own compost with our DIY Backyard Composting Guide.

Read our blog all about starting a strawberry container garden too! 

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From the Road: Trefethen Family Vineyards

From the Road: Trefethen Family Vineyards

Written by Sterling Carlton, Beer, Wine & Spirits Specialist

Another Monday, another scenic drive through meticulously contoured vineyards flanking either side of the Silverado Trail. Eventually making our way to Oak Knoll Ave, we found ourselves traveling down the drive of the largest family owned estate vineyard in the valley: Trefethen Family Vineyards. We passed the wonderful Pinot Noir blocks, my favorite Riesling block, and several Cabernet Sauvignon blocks; cover crops growing happily beneath the vines. 

We started our visit in the charming, rustic farmhouse turned winery and tasting room. An historic building for the Valley, it begged to be filled with the bustle of wine lunches and harvest crews. Built in 1886 and teeming through “Napa’s first Golden Age,” it lay empty for years following prohibition before Eugene and Catherine Trefethen arrived in 1968 and restored it to its former glory. In 1973 they hosted their first commercial harvest for both Trefethen Family Wines and Domaine Chandon, who’s wine facility would not be completed for at least five more years. They still sell fruit for sparkling wine to Chandon to this very day.

The Trefethen family is deeply committed to sustainability. Cover crops between the vines play several roles including preventing erosion, adding green matter into the soil, fixing micronutrients, and can even mitigate the effects of nematodes and pests in the vineyards. Looking out at the vines you notice several large and several small boxes on posts spaced throughout the vineyard. The boxes, housing important native owls, bluebirds, and bats, nod to the family’s commitment to balance within nature, as well as in the wine. This balance with nature guides the viticultural practices on the estate. From using natural predators, to utilizing extensive water recycling programs and even capturing and repurposing the CO2 gas thrown off by fermentations, the Trefethen estate is a leader of sustainability in the industry. 

Leaving the farmhouse tasting room and walking the grounds revealed how extensive the estate’s commitment to biodiversity is. We walked through lavender, rosemary, and daffodils just starting to reach for the sun. The path eventually led into a beautiful kitchen garden, usually overflowing with fresh produce in the summer growing months, to be utilized by the estate’s onsite chef.

We sat outside and tasted through the entire lineup of Trefethen wines. Elegant and tightly structured, they harkened back to the early days of Napa’s revival. Starting with the estate Riesling given the warm mid 70s day we had, we enjoyed the lean, high acid and solid fruit core of the wine. Bone dry and nicely textured, this wine can be had as an aperitif or with plenty of food. The Cabernet and Cabernet based blends were truly fantastic as well. Tight structured and rich, they opened into nuanced red wines that can be enjoyed now, or cellared for later drinking. Ultimately, I settled on their estate Chardonnay for a few reasons. First, it is delicious and a really excellent expression of what Chardonnay can be. Second, it comes with a great story: The early vintages of this cuvee won first place in the 1979 and 1980 World Wine Olympics organized by the French restaurant publication Gault & Millan’s Le Nouveau Guide. After having tasted the 1976 vintage, the judges proclaimed the Trefethen estate Chardonnay to be the “Best in the World.” That’s a serious boast, but I can say that it is truly delicious.

Find the following Trefethen Family Vineyards wines in the Wine Department.

 

Chardonnay – fresh and vibrant aromas of sliced green apple, white peach, and honeysuckle with integrated notes of baked apple and puff pastry on the palate

Harmony Chardonnay – fruit notes on the palate, with integrated flavors of apple blossom, honeysuckle, and brioche to round out the profile

Dry Riesling –  crisp and zesty, showing beautiful notes of lemon, lime, and spring flowers. The nose explodes with fresh aromas of lemongrass, ginger, and white pepper

Merlot – concentrated red fruit flavors are fresh and bright on the palate leading to expansive notes of spice and forest floor

 

Receive 10% off when you buy 6 or more bottles.

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Did you know it’s Compostable?

Did You Know it’s Compostable?

This blog provides a side-by-side comparison of the packaging of a few common brands and products that we carry and the compostable alternatives that are available. While this is by no means a complete list of all of the compostable packaged products that we carry, it should serve as a good tool to give you some tips to look for when you are in doubt about the best way to dispose of a product. You can learn more about composting in the City of Davis here

While we are unable to escape the fact that most packaging is not compostable, the Co-op is proud to carry brands that are and is looking to expand their own offerings in this area. You may have already noticed some compostable options in our Produce and Bulk departments and we are proud to announce that our Deli department is making the switch to using more compostable packaging as well. You can already see some package changes which will continue to transition over the next few weeks. Before you dispose of any of these items, be sure to inspect the packaging for some of the verbiage that you can find in this blog.

Compostable products have evolved in recent years to more closely resemble and feel like traditional products. You may be surprised to see a container in our Deli department that looks and feels like clear plastic, but is actually fully compostable. When checking to see if an item like this is compostable, look for “PLA” or “0” inside or below the typical recycling triangle. You can also look for the words “compostable” or “biodegradable”, the City of Davis’ composting facility can handle it all! Some products may say “backyard compostable” or “compostable at a compost facility”, both of which are also accepted in Davis.

Why Compostable?

Compostable products are an obvious win when comparing end-of-life processing. When you are finished with a compostable product, you can compost it and turn it into a regenerative product: compost. Compost can be used in a number of ways, mostly as fertilizer for farms. Learn more about the benefits of composting in our blogs: Composting Guide and Regenerative Agriculture: People, Planet, and Profit. 

It is also important to look at the full lifecycle of a product (and by-products) alongside each company’s sustainability practices and goals to make the biggest impact as an individual consumer. Our Meat department, for example, made the switch to prepacking most products in a vacuum sealed plastic film. The plastic film is not compostable or recyclable in Davis but the switch that was made actually reduced the total plastic used. For food safety, meat clerks must change gloves and plastic film often when handling various meats, which adds up quick. So although the prepacked meat comes in plastics instead of butcher paper, much less plastic is used in the overall process. 

Side-by-Side Comparison of a Few Products

Not Compostable

Compostable

These bags are not compostable or recyclable in the City of Davis. These bags remain available in our Produce department by the request of shoppers/Owners who prefer these to the compostable bags. 

The compostable bags in the produce section are backyard compostable. You can send them to the City of Davis composting facility or put it in your at-home compost pile. 

Seventh Generation dryer sheets are not compostable or recyclable, however they are plant based. This may cause confusion about how to dispose of them. “Plant-based” sounds like it should be compostable, but unfortunately that is not true, and these need to be put in the landfill.

Mrs. Meyer’s dryer sheets are made of a brown paper and nontoxic fabric softeners. These are compostable in Davis. 

All our pre-popped popcorn unfortunately comes in a plastic/metal bag that cannot be recycled or composted in Davis. 

 

All of our microwave popcorn bags are compostable. Even better they are all PFAS free. PFAS can sometimes be found in compostable items, which pollutes our compost and waterways. You don’t need to worry about that here! Some popcorn comes individually wrapped in a plastic bag and this is required for food safety, unfortunately we cannot avoid plastic completely. 

TetraPaks and shelf stable liquid cartons are not recyclable or compostable. They are made by layering paper, plastic, and metal. Separating these materials take a tremendous amount of water. There are only a few places in the U.S. that will recycle them and you have to ship that at your own cost. 

Can’t tell the difference? Look on the inside once it’s empty. If it is silver, put it in the landfill bin. If is clear and you can tear it with your hands, put it in the compost bin

Milk and milk alternatives you find in the refrigerator section are not always TetraPaks. This Oatly container and many of our cow’s Milk cartons are made with paper and wax or very thin plastic. Either way the City of Davis will accept. Cut the plastic spout off the top and put in the compost bin. 

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Regenerative Agriculture: People, Planet, and Profit

Regenerative Agriculture

The Earth naturally has a flow of carbon dioxide. It is stored in large deposits, often called “Carbon Sinks”, as fossil fuels, forests, and in the ocean. It is stored in microorganisms in the soil and in plants. We have accelerated the release of carbon through burning fossil fuels and conventional farming practices, and have slowed near a halt of the reabsorption of carbon dioxide through conventional farming and deforestation. The result, climate change and global warming. The excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere “simply” needs to be put back into the soil.

Regenerative agriculture, also known as “Carbon Farming”, has tremendous global potential and consists of widely available and inexpensive organic management practices. According to the Regenerative Agriculture Initiative at Chico State and the Carbon Underground, “Regenerative Agriculture is a holistic land management practice that leverages the power of photosynthesis in plants to close the carbon cycle, and build soil health, crop resilience and nutrient density”.

Regeneration International claims that “the deployment of all of these regenerative and organic best practices across the world on 5-10% of all agricultural lands…would result in…50% more [CO2 ] than the amount of sequestration needed to drawdown the CO2 that is currently being released into the atmosphere and the oceans” 

Regenerative farming includes, but is not limited to: 

Tilling, the practice of breaking up and rotating soil to churn weeds and crop residue back in the soil, breaks up root structures in the soil thus releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and deteriorating the topsoil. No-tilling practices, disturbing the soil as little as possible, results in healthier soil, which means healthier plants and higher crop yields.    

The following photo shows a tilled farm with unhealthy soil. This practice deteriorates soil, puts Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere and will eventually make the soil useless to farmers.

Regenerative farmers also use cover crops. These plants cover the fields while leaving space for the intended crop and keep Carbon Dioxide in the soil. Cover crops provide the microorganisms in the soil with the nutrients they need to keep the soil healthy and balanced.

You may have already read our blog about composting and it’s environmental benefits. Composting some of the cover crops or main crop residue can be used to sequester carbon quickly and improve soil health. According to the Rodale Institute, “the benefits are significant and accrue quickly: after only one application season of amending with compost, soil organic carbon and aggregate stability increase significantly compared with non-amended soils.”

Crop rotations, switching the crop seasonally or yearly, has shown to “increase soil biodiversity and sequester Carbon” according to Rodale Institute. Keeping plants in the soil year round keeps a high amount of microorganisms in the soil, which we already know means healthy soil and higher crop yields. 

Residue Retention is the practice of keeping the roots and base of the original plant, whether it be the cover crops or the main crop. Removing the plant residue by tilling or for bio-energy removes the Carbon from the soil and puts it in the atmosphere.

Rotational grazing is a regenerative practice where ranchers section off their land and move the cattle around the land to promote plant growth and soil health. SunFed ranch from Woodland, CA practices rotational grazing throughout their farmland and describes it as “the practice of guiding our cattle to new areas of the ranch to avoid overgrazing and allow forage to recover between mealtimes.” Learn more about SunFed Ranch’s commitment to regenerative agriculture in this video and be sure to stop by our Meat Department next time you are at the Co-op to check out our selection of SunFed products!

In an article from the Journal of Environmental Management, Samantha Mosier, et al. found that rotational grazing led to 13% more soil Carbon and 9% more soil Nitrogen compared to conventional grazing. Rotational grazing keeps the soil and plant life flourishing. With this practice ranchers are able to support more cattle than with traditional grazing. Not only is rotational grazing good for the environment, it can result in a higher yield for ranchers. 

The intersection of these practices gives you regenerative agriculture. They all intertwine and improve each other. Rodale Institute claims that “recent data from farming systems and pasture trials around the globe show that we could sequester more than 100% of current annual CO 2 emissions with a switch to [regenerative agriculture]”. All of these practices are widely available, inexpensive to use, and result in a healthier soil, planet, and crops.

Regenerative agriculture is a win-win for the planet and farmers.

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Thanksgiving and Food Waste

Learn how to minimize your Food Waste during Thanksgiving

In the United States, 40 percent of food goes to waste. This is a time of family, friends, and food. Unfortunately, because of our individual habits and struggles of our national food systems, in 2013, $277 million worth of turkey ended up in the trash after Thanksgiving. 

Read the ReFed Annual 2020 Report

and

NRDC Update 2017 Food Waste Report

by clicking the following images to learn about national food solutions: 

Why Reducing Waste is More than Just Saving Food

Wasting food wastes more than food, it wastes all the resources needed to make the food. The EPA elegantly explains all the great things that reducing food waste does for the environment:

  • Saves resources: Wasted food wastes the water, gasoline, energy, labor, pesticides, land, and fertilizers used to make the food. When we throw food in the trash, we’re throwing away much more than food.
  • Reduces methane from landfills: When food goes to the landfill, it’s similar to tying food in a plastic bag. The nutrients in the food never return to the soil. The wasted food rots and produces methane gas. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas with more than 21 times the global warming potential compared to carbon dioxide. Learn how to start your own compost pile in our blog: https://davisfood.coop/composting-guide/
  • Returns nutrients to the soil: If you can’t prevent, reduce, or donate wasted food, you can compost. By sending food scraps to a composting facility instead of to a landfill or composting at home, you’re helping make healthy soils. Composting improves soil health and structure, improves water retention, supports more native plants, and reduces the need for fertilizers and pesticides.

So as part of showing thanks to our American food bounty, consider the following strategies to help you avoid wasting it this year on Thanksgiving.

What you can do while you shop

  • Coordinate recipes with friends and family so you don’t end up with 3 green bean casseroles (unless if you want 3 green bean casseroles!). Setting up a shared Google Doc is a great way to simultaneously plan the meal with the friends and family you’re sharing the day with.
  • Prepare less by cutting recipes in half. If you can’t have Thanksgiving without sweet potato casserole, but like me also “need” to make at least five other traditional side dishes, consider making a half recipe for one or all dishes, instead of full recipes.
  • Plan ahead, make a list and compile ingredients from different recipes to avoid over buying. Be prepared to make conversions in the store, you may need 10 cups of flour, but it is sold by the pound. 
  • Resist the temptation to impulse buy, and buy in smaller quantities. Don’t be tempted by the big bag of pecans that are on sale when you only need a ¼ cup! Our Bulk Department is great way to only get what you need for recipes. 
  • Save a turkey! Instead of eating a turkey as the main course, consider adopting one from Farm Sanctuary! The Natural Resources Defense Council estimated in 2013 that $277 million worth of turkey ended up in the trash after Thanksgiving. The resources wasted from all that turkey is “equivalent to the amount of water needed to supply New York City for 100 days and greenhouse gases equal to 800,000 car trips from San Francisco to New York.”

What you can do while you prep

  • Resist the urge to cut off all the “ugly parts”; the wilted leaves, top of the beet, and leave the skin on the root veggies. Carrot, beet, and potato skins are full of nutrients! You can also eat squash skins, like delicata and acorn, but pumpkin and butternut may not get soft enough to really enjoy.
  • Set multiple timers! Hopefully nothing will burn and therefore less waste. 
  • Use ingredients you already have. If you accidentally bought celery but you already had some in the fridge, be sure to use the older one first. 
  • Save the veggie and meat scraps in the freezer to make broth with another time. Learn how to make Turkey Bone Broth from you Turkey Day Bird HERE
  • Last resort is to compost them. 

What you can do when it’s time to eat

  • Serve smaller portions, you can always go back for seconds! This will reduce the wasted scraps of food on all the plates.

What you can do with leftovers 

  • Turn those leftovers into something new with our Thanksgiving Leftover Recipe Blog 
  • Freeze them to save for when you can stomach stuffing and cranberry sauce again! 
  • Save some of the dog-friendly items and mix them in with their normal food for a special meal too. Be cautious, dogs have a difficult time digesting chocolate, onions and garlic, and grapes are poisonous. 
  • Use the Turkey remnants to make broth! 

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Who’s to blame for Daylight Savings?

Who’s to blame for Daylight Savings?

It is an unfortunately common belief that daylight savings was “the fault of farmers”. This belief is false. The American Farm Bureau Federation released an article early this year in hope to set the record straight. They have little hope that daylight savings will go away, but do hope that “maybe one day the sun will set on the idea that it started with farmers.” David Prerau, the author of “Seize the Daylight.” told the New York Times, “I don’t know how that ever became a myth, but it is the exact opposite.”

He said daylight saving time actually disrupts farmers’ schedules.

Livestock and plants do not know of the time change and move along as normal. Cows need to be milked at consistent intervals, thus the time change throws the day to day of the farm off an hour or more to accommodate the cows and to accommodate outside influences, like vendor sales and markets. In 1921, Massachusetts farmers banded together and sued the state for financial losses due to daylight savings and demanded that Standard Time be returned. They lost on both counts. 

Daylight savings is marketed as a way to save energy, allowing more sunlight in the evening when people presumably spend more time at home. There is however a significant amount of studies stating that daylight savings leads an increase in energy use.

Michael Downing, a lecturer at Tufts University and the author of “Spring Forward: The Annual Madness of Daylight Saving Time.” claims that the sunlight at the end of the day encourages the American people to go out. 

“We go to the parks, and we go to the mall, but we don’t walk there,” he said. “Daylight saving increases gasoline consumption.”

Mr. Prerau stated that the idea of daylight savings was rooted in candle wax, not electricity. The idea to change the clocks back was first done by WWI Germany, with the British and the US following shortly after. Mr. Downing said the idea was originally based on having “an eight-hour economy,” but electricity demand is no longer based on sunrises and sunsets.

The need for and benefits of daylight savings in modern times is still up for debate. One thing for sure, it is not our farmers’ fault. 

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